**An overview of commonly used math symbols in LaTeX**

Since LaTeX offers a large amount of features, it’s hard to remember all commands. Even though commands follow a logical naming scheme, you will probably need a table for the most common math symbols at some point. I don’t want to provide a complete list of LaTeX symbols on this website. The *ctan *already* *provides a huge list with currently 5913 symbols, which you can download here. Instead I’m trying to limit this list to the most common math symbols and commands. If you think I forgot some very important basic function or symbol here, please let me know.

## List of common \(\LaTeX\) math symbols

### Trigonometric functions

The symbols for trigonometric functions have a very straightforward naming scheme. Just precede the common abbreviations with a backslash \ and put your variables in braces.

Name | Symbol | Command |
---|---|---|

Sine | \(\sin x\) | \sin x |

Cosine | \(\cos x\) | \cos x |

Tangent | \(\tan x \) | \tan x |

Cotangent | \(\cot x\) | \cot x |

Secant | \(\sec x\) | \sec x |

Cosecant | \(\csc x\) | \csc x |

### Integrals

LaTeX offers math symbols for various kinds of integrals out of the box. Note that you can set the integral boundaries by using the underscore _ and circumflex ^ symbol as seen below.

Name | Symbol | Command |
---|---|---|

Indefinite integral | \(\int f(x) dx\) | \int f(x) dx |

Definite integral | \(\int_a^b f(x) x\) | \int_a^b f(x) x |

Domain integral | \(\int_D f(x) dx\) | \int_D f(x) dx |

Double integral | \(\iint f(x,y) dx dy\) | \iint f(x,y) dx dy |

Triple integral | \(\iiint f(x,y,z) dx dy dz\) | \iiint f(x,y,z) dx dy dz |

Closed curve integral | \(\oint_C F ds\) | \oint_C F ds |

### Matrices

Of course LaTeX is able to typeset matrices as well. For this purpose LaTeX offers the following environments. Columns are separated with ampersand & and rows with a double backslash \\ (the linebreak command). Make sure that the number of ampersands is the same for every row.

Name | Symbol | Command |
---|---|---|

Matrix | \(\begin{matrix}1&0\\1&0\end{matrix}\) |
\begin{matrix}1&0\\ 1&0\end{matrix} |

bMatrix | \(\begin{bmatrix}1&0\\1&0\end{bmatrix}\) |
\begin{bmatrix}1&0\\ 1&0\end{bmatrix} |

pMatrix | \(\begin{pmatrix}1&0\\1&0\end{pmatrix}\) |
\begin{pmatrix}1&0\\ 1&0\end{pmatrix} |

vMatrix | \(\begin{vmatrix}1&0\\1&0\end{vmatrix}\) |
\begin{vmatrix}1&0\\ 1&0\end{vmatrix} |

Determinant | \(\det{\begin{vmatrix}1&0\\1&0\end{vmatrix}}\) |
\det{\begin{vmatrix}1&0\\ 1&0\end{vmatrix}} |

If you want to typeset very large matrices, the following commands can become in handy as well.

### Dots

The most common dot symbols used in math notation are available in LaTeX as well.

Name | Symbol | Command |
---|---|---|

Middot / Centered dot | \(\cdot\) | \cdot |

Horizontal Dots / Centered dots | \(\cdots\) | \cdots |

Vertical Dots | \(\vdots\) | \vdots |

Diagonal Dots |
\(\ddots\) | \ddots |

Lower Dots |
\(\ldots\) |
\ldots |

Example: \(\begin{bmatrix}1 & 0 & \cdots & 0\\1 & 0 & \cdots & 0\\\vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\1 & 0 & 0 & 0\end{bmatrix}\) |
\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & \cdots & 0\\ 1 & 0 & \cdots & 0\\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \end{bmatrix} |

### Miscellaneous functions

Here are some more basic functions which don’t fit in the categories mentioned above.

Name | Symbol | Command |
---|---|---|

Logarithmic Function / Logarithm | \(\log{x}\) | \log{x} |

Logarithm (base a) | \(\log_a{b}\) | \log_a{b} |

Square root function / Square root | \(\sqrt{x}\) | \sqrtx} |

n-th root function / n-th root | \(\sqrt[n]{x}\) | \sqrt[n]{x} |

Rational function / Fraction | \(\frac{u(x)}{v(x)}\) | \frac{u(x)}{v(x)} |